Monazite: Characteristics, Origin and Applications



One rich source of rare earth metals is monazite, a phosphate mineral crystal with chemical formula of (Ce, La)PO4. Monazite contains several rare earth metals, but in different concentrations: monazite-(Ce), for example, has a high cerium content. Other categories of monazite according to the major rare earth metal they contain include monazite-(La) which has high lanthanum content; monazite-(Nd) which has high neodymium content; and monazite-(Pr) which has high praseodymium content.


The most common color of monazite is reddish brown, although other samples excavated from known monazite deposits yielded monazite crystals that are colored brown, pale yellow, pink, grey, and even green. As a crystal, monazite is prismatic or wedge-shaped, with white streaks all around its surface. Monazite crystals range in appearance from translucent to opaque, with a luster that mineralogists describe as resinous, vitreous, or adamantine. Another major characteristic of monazite is its radioactivity. This is a result of monazite s thorium content, which can sometimes reach 20 to 30% of the mineral. It falls under 5.0 to 5.5 in the Mohs hardness scale.

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Origin and History

Monazite was first discovered in the 1880s in a ship that carried monazite sand from Brazil. It was discovered by Carl Auer von Welsbach, who, during that time, has invented incandescent mantles that required a steady source of thorium in order to operate. Due to its radioactivity, interest in monazite grew especially in its potential as nuclear fuel. However, with the introduction of bastnasite (another rare earth metal-rich mineral) and the increased concern over the disposal of thorium s harmful radioactive by-products, monazite s popularity considerably fell.

This mineral s name was derived from a Greek word that translates into to be solitary a description that points to its isolated crystals. Brazil and India were the major sources of monazite before the World War. Other deposits are found in Madagascar and South Africa in Africa; Australia; Sri Lanka and Malaysia in Asia; and Norway, Austria, and Switzerland in Europe.

Uses and applications

Although the thorium content of monazite has limited its actual use in the years following the introduction of its alternative (bastnasite), monazite remains to have several uses and applications in industries and technology. It is a rich source of cerium, a rare earth metal used as a chemical oxidizing agent, polishing powder, and pigment for glass and ceramics, among other

things. It is also a source of lanthanum, a rare earth metal used in the manufacture of high refractive index glass, battery electrodes, camera lenses, and hydrogen storage.

Monazite also supplies industries with the rare earth metals neodymium and praseodymium. Neodymium is used in making rare earth magnets, lasers, ceramic capacitors, and violet pigment for glass and ceramics. Praseodymium, on the other hand, is used in the industries for the manufacture of rare earth magnets, lasers, core materials for carbon arc lighting, colorant in glasses and enamels, additive in didymium glass used in welding goggles, and the production of ferrocerium firesteel (flint) products.

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February 11, 2019 · Earthmoving Equipment · (No comments)

Submitted by: C. J Mackey

If you feel worthless, like all the accomplishments you’ve achieved over the last few decades are pointless, that nothing you say or do has any meaning, don’t worry.

Before you schedule a doctor’s appointment, simply look for the following signs. If you’ve noted any of these happening in your home, you don’t need a prescription for anti-depressants, you simply have failed to notice that your child has become a teenager.

The tiniest sign of affection embarrasses him – Forget about holding hands, hugs, or pecks on the cheek. Any attempt at affection is met with him pretending not to know you. I first noticed this with my son when I took him for a trip to the local Starbucks for a treat. The only other person in the establishment besides us was the clerk behind the counter. When I went to throw my arm around his shoulders to give him a gentle squeeze, I was told “not now Mom, we’re in public.”

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Vampires get up earlier – Gone are the days when he used to bound into your bedroom at 6 a.m. ready to play. My son always used to be a morning person. In fact, he was so much so, he would wake my husband and I in the middle of the night to play for an hour or two. If you put him down at 7:30 p.m., you needed to expect to be up at 4 a.m. Now 12 p.m. can roll around before I bang on his door to get a mumbled reply. And like vampires he shrinks from any sunlight. God help the parent who tries to raise the blinds or open the window, for you shall feel his wrath.

Everything you say is wrong – I can remember when we could tell my son anything and he would believe us. We used to tell him they stopped making peanut butter when we forgot to buy it at the grocery store. He would look disappointed but convinced. Perhaps as fate’s little payback, now nothing I say is true. I hold a master’s degree in engineering and have taken Advanced Calculus. But should I suggest that the negative sign in his pre-Algebra homework is incorrect, I have to prove it with an argument worthy of a Ph.D. thesis.

Nothing from your time can be any good – Suggestions that he might like a TV show, movie, or song from your youth results in a look of complete and utter disbelief. I must say I take perverse pleasure when in a store like Abercrombie & Fitch and a song from my era is being played on their sound system. When told that this is a “great new song” by my son, I smile and nod, and tell him it was great when I was in high school too. This is met with a surprising and sudden interest by my son in whatever is on the sales rack.

Showing interest equals mind control – Asking “how was your day?” only solicits a suspicious stare. Understand that any attention is considered unwanted attention. If I go so far as to ask my son to do a chore or “favor” for me, I don’t get “yes, Mother” as a reply. I get “yes, Master.” At this point, I’m just happy he still does the task. But I’m keeping my expectations low on that one as well.

If you recognize any of these signs, don’t despair. I’m told the condition is only temporary, and that this stage too shall pass. I am a little concerned; however, when I ask my older friends what comes next, they smirk a little and look away.

About the Author: C. J. Mackey is a working mother of three, balancing a full time career while taking an active role in her children’s lives. She has an advanced degree in engineering and over twenty years making technology decisions for fortune 500 companies. For further details visit


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BMW takes two on merger


Evander Klum

DaimlerChrysler, parent automaker of Mercedes-Benz, has already signed the papers to their corporate divorce while their strong rival BMW is planning to launch a takeover bid for Volvo earlier this year as revealed by Autocar. It can be noted that most analysts have expressed their concern over mergers in the auto industry saying that it is not pragmatic. But it looks like BMW just dont want itself to be daunted by the number of failed mergers in the industry and preferred to personally experience it.

Anyway, the Bavarian automaker and producer of high quality BMW exhaust have already requested a complete breakdown of Volvos financial position from a European investment bank which is handling enquiries on behalf of Ford, the owner of Volvo. Reliable sources have also revealed that BMW has earlier eyed the Alfa Romeo as its takeover target.

According to industry experts BMW is planning to expand its range of brands to support the future growth of the company. Likewise, part of its plan is underpinning the front-wheel-drive Mini division by expanding its output and it can do so with the help of Volvo.

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Why Volvo? Company bosses at BMW saw Volvo as the fitting global brand complimentary to BMW, which they deemed has considerable room for growth and room to accommodate Volvo. Although BMW will always emphasize driving pleasure, Volvo on the other hand will contribute safety and environmental concerns to the mix.

At present it not yet clear what BMW plans are but its probable that the larger saloon and estate models of Volvo just in case would be switched to BMW platforms offering both rear-and four-wheel drive. The smaller cars in the Volvos range would remained front-drive and would probably be merged to the Mini family expanding this model range.

The Mini brand is currently one of the biggest problems of BMW and it has already been forced to allot additional investment just for the redesigning of the new Mini as well as engineering the Mini Clubman estate. But despite all the efforts Mini sales are still down on their 2005 peak and the BMW insiders admit that a total annual output of 250,000 to 270,000 cars is just not enough to secure a profitable long-term future for the Mini brand.

Potentially with Volvo, BMW could build the proposed large five-door Mini and Mini SUV on the same front-drive chassis as the future S40 and V50. And lets just say for the sake of argument that this was done, an annual output of 500,000 upmarket Volvo and Mini front-drive cars could ensure long-term profitability.

The expectation for future profit is not new when it comes to merger in fact every one of those failed union in the auto industry is hoping for the same thing thats why they merge in the first place. Unfortunately, none of those merges survive except for the seven years partnership between Nissan and Renault but even their union is still uncertain and nobody knows what may happen in the future.

And let us not forget that seven years ago BMW was humiliated when it incurred massive losses which forced it to split up and sell the Rover Group which it bought in 1994. The question now is: Has BMW forgets the lessons of the past or has it learned a lot to create a new successful partnership? Well only BMW can answer that.

For more about your

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needs, visit your trusted online source.Evander Klum is a Business Administration graduate who hails from Alabama. He enjoys extreme sports and he is also a car racing fanatic. At present, he works as a marketing manager at an advertising agency in Cleveland.

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Tower Cranes – Manufactured using the most recent and modern technology


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Sunil Punjabi

The purpose of Tower cranes is to lift up, carry and drop down heavy construction material and substances. Since it is a mechanical device that is normally used in the manufacturing of heavy weight equipment, it is appropriate for individuals related to construction business. Therefore, Tower cranes are generally used and seen at almost all the sites that are under construction.

According to many experts, Tower cranes are the contemporary kinds of cranes that are made using the most recent and modern technology. It is because of its uplifting ability and height that these cranes are mostly found at sites where tall buildings are being constructed. These cranes feature long post, which is fixed to the land or ground and also two arms, one, which is horizontally positioned, and another, which is diagonally balanced disproportionately at the top of the crane tower. The function of the long extended arm is to hold the lifting gear whereas the function of the short arm is to hold building blocks. Now the question arises that since Tower cranes have no such support on both sides, how does it actually operate or function? In order to have a clear understanding on how these cranes operate, it is essential to gain knowledge regarding the basic parts of these cranes. Tower cranes consist of three basic parts, base, mast (commonly known as a tower) and a slewing unit. The Base serves the purpose of providing support to the tower crane and is fastened tightly to a large and solid concrete pad. The mast or the tower provides height to the crane and is directly connected to the base. Last but not the least, the slewing unit is a motor, which enables the crane to revolve or rotate at different directions. As discussed earlier, Tower cranes are manufactured using the most recent technology, and intelligence when combined with this remarkable technology gave origin to this effective machinery that has made the construction work much easier. The entire crane is not built in one go, but is created in parts a few weeks or months before its actual operation. A Tower crane is a great invention and has amazed people with its incredible attributes and performance. Though Tower cranes have the capacity to load up to 40,000 pounds, experts suggest that it is not recommendable to load this heavy weight. These Tower cranes have the capacity to rise up to hundreds of feet high. The construction team utilizes these cranes to lift up concrete, steel and other large objects like generators, acetylene torches and various other heavy building substances. If you ever get a chance to look at how these cranes operate you will be amazed of how it can lift such heavy weight and is able to grow up taller as the building increases in height.

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Ethical Hunting, Every Hunters Responsibility


Bob Darrah

As I look at my hunting equipment a couple of things occur to me. First, My goodness Im spoiled! I have rifles, scopes, rangefinders, binoculars, shooting sleds and a bunch of other equipment to numerous to mention. Second, at one point or another I felt I absolutely needed every one of these items to become a better hunter. Do I really? Probably not, but it sure does make me feel better when I use them to fill my tags.

As a young boy growing up in the Midwest I can still remember getting my first gun and the responsibility lessons that came along with it. Most of it made sense but some of it I had to figure out. My first gun was at age 7 and it was a BB gun. I was only allowed to shoot at cans, flowers, pieces of wood, or any other non-living things that I could find that did not require too much clean up. I begged my father to let me shoot coots on one of our ponds so I could have the feeling of shooting something that reacted. I was always told no because the BB gun wouldnt kill the bird, it would only be inflicting pain and besides that we couldnt eat it if I were to kill it. Well, being 7 I knew I was much smarter than my father so I snuck down to the pond one day and lined up a coot in my sites. After checking to make sure nobody was around I let him have it. That bird flew away, after squawking, flailing and making enough noise for everyone to hear within a mile radius. Of course, my Dad was only about an eighth of a mile away. Needless to say I understood what he meant about the inflicting pain part for a few days after that.

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As I grew older I learned many lessons about hunting and the responsibilities that come with it. As a young man I was not making a huge amount of money and had 2 kids. I think back wondering how we would have survived without my hunting and fishing. This meant when I hunted I had purpose, not only to get something, but to make sure I made a clean shot so as to not ruin any of the meat. I also learned to use just about every part of the animal once I did get it. These times made me a much better hunter as well as an ethical hunter.

There is nothing more frustrating to most hunters than shooting an animal and not being able to find it. Not that this can be avoided completely, but that is one of the reasons there is such a huge market for all of the equipment I have in my gun safe. Scopes, rangefinders, tripods, etc. are all made to make the job of ethical hunting easier. All of this equipment doesnt expunge the hunter of their responsibility though. An ethical hunter will still make sure they practice tirelessly to get good at using these items and then they will make sure they have a shot they are comfortable with before they ever think of pulling the trigger.

Once an animal is down the responsibility of the clean kill has been accomplished and now the work begins. Learning how to dress an animal and make sure it ends up in a freezer is something every hunter should know but not every hunter does. My thoughts on this are not really a secret to those that I hunt with. I am not a trophy hunter by any sense of the imagination; I hunt to fill the freezer. I do hunt with some guys that are trophy hunters however and this doesnt have any effects on their ethics. Ive helped drag out legal, clean kills and take them directly to a processor to have them donated to the local food banks or another family that will use it. This type of hunting gives all of us a good name and also will teach our future generations to conduct themselves in the same manner.

Hunting is a sport that thousands of people enjoy and partake in. Through the education of every hunter that dons their camos and takes to the field it will be a sport that can be enjoyed for generations to come. Only through ignorance and lack of respect will this be foiled. From the experiences Ive had and hope to have in the future, hunting ethics is the norm not an anomaly.

Bob Darrah, hunting and outdoor enthusiast. For more information on the

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Need Engineering Colleges to Become an Engineer


Sarfraj Ahmed

Employment by a government agency is not that farfetched for someone who has been through engineering college. The government does like to employ the best, don\’t they? So if you desire to work as an engineer with some of the best in the business, you need to find your way into an engineering college, and back out.

Many engineering colleges give their students training in drawings and designs. Of course you know how come they need this; a third of all engineering is after all designing, even before getting to the actual building part. In addition, there is not better or easier way to pass messages about spaces and dimensions than when you have it all played out in a diagram that the next engineer can read as well.

You need engineering college to become an engineer because it simply is the best kind of environment to raise young engineers. Anywhere else can slow your learning process down because you are not with people in like disciplines. And since your interests are so different, you will not get what you want or need from there.

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Every form of engineering is related, and that is why the first year in engineering college is almost identical almost everywhere. That is when they teach you the basics. If you don\’t get it then, you\’d probably never get it again. After then, they now break you up into specialties as you choose or as your grades choose for you.

Contrary to what you have thought earlier, not every single engineering college is appropriate for you. You want to understand what they offer and if their teaching methods are conducive for you. When you know that, you can apply. Trying to do so before you fully have a grasp of it would be tantamount to an exercise in futility.

Whatever type of engineering you want to do, you are bound to find colleges that offer such courses. The catch is that the college may not be in your area, but possibly halfway across the world. You want to be prepared for that, so find the engineering college right away. It\’s not like it\’s likely to take you longer than a couple of days of surfing the Internet with your specifications on hand.

If you are no good in math and science, you have no business applying to engineering college. They will have you out on your backside in a month flat. There\’s just no getting past engineering without those subjects bagged good. Within a semester or two, you would have flunked most of your courses because they are all based on the sciences. And then you would have to change majors or drop out or start again


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Submitted by: Elaine Shay

Environmental issues have become essential in our day to day life. Our world is being destroyed, so we need to take some action now. Using renewable energy sources can be a wonderful option to do so. Wind and solar power are some of the sources for additional energy supply.

Wind turbine energy kits for domestic use are getting more popular these days. They are quite easy to install and really affordable for any householder. Commercial and larger wind turbine energy systems can be too expensive for residential use. That is why DIY wind turbines are an outstanding opportunity to reduce your ecological impact on the environment and save some money. Many DIY windmill constructing guides are available online. These manuals have great information about how to build your own wind turbine energy system or how to recondition free forklift batteries for your windmill. They are quite cheap and the can provide the perfect assistance on very stage of the building process.

Residential wind turbine energy systems offer many advantages over the regular electricity supply. First of all, wind is everywhere. I may blow slow or quite fast, but it is always there. There is no way we could eve run out of wind.

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As the sun, wind is a renewable energy source, so it is completely environmentally friendly and much better than fossil fuels, because wind turbine energy does not generate any pollutants. It is known that 1% to 3% of the energy provided by the sun turns into wind power. This is about 50 to 100 times the amount of energy obtained from plat life and biomass over the entire planet.

The installation of a wind turbine energy system is much simpler than solar panels setup. Besides, homemade wind turbines are smaller and need less space to be placed on. In fact, their size is perfect for a roof in a residential property. In order to meet legal regulations, it is essential that you get the established permission before you install the turbine.

Wind turbine energy can supply your electricity requirements and save you almost 80% of your electric company bill. What is more, you will never have to worry again about the electric company energy supply during a fierce storm or bad weather, because you will be able to power your home in an independent way. Most of the wind turbine energy systems have a set of batteries to store the exceeding energy generation and use it when required.

Regarding the production of wind turbine energy, much more advanced technologies have been developed. That is the reason why these windmills can generate energy even when the wind does not blow so strong and direct where it is needed in an efficient way.

Even though homemade wind turbine efficiency does not reach 1000 KW capacities, your domestic electrical requirements can be totally covered with it. Wind turbine energy systems are an exceptional possibility to save some money and they are also a great opportunity to use renewable energy sources to supply your routine necessities.

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